RecycleWind – Conception and application simulation of a self-learning recycling network for the resource-saving control of material flows for high-quality and especially long-lasting products using the example of wind turbines.
Project duration: August 2020 – January 2022
With the approach of RecycleWind and the foundations created there for a resilient and self-learning recycling network, a completely new path is being embarked on terms of manufacturer responsibility in waste legislation, in order to ensure high-quality recycling also for long-lasting products with useful lives of 20 and more years, such as wind turbines.
The focus of the project is on research and development of scientifically proven methods of self-control in material flow systems, the simulation of possible applications and concept development of suitable services for this new approach of such a network.
Project duration RecycleWind 1.0: 23.02.2018 – 31.10.2019
Project duration RecycleWind 2.0: 01.08.2020 – 31.01.2022
Activities & aims
Wind turbines are high-quality complex products made from a variety of materials. A significant market has only existed for about two decades. The first plants today reach the end of their product life cycle or will be replaced by more powerful types in the course of repowering. There are currently several options available for further use respectively disposal of these End-of-life plants (Eol-WEA):
b) use of components as spare parts,
c) material or raw materials or
The recyclability has not been considered at construction of old systems and is playing only a subordinate role in new systems to date. The functionality and the achievable power output are the main drivers. In addition, a disposal is usually only scheduled for 20 to 30 years after the installation of the facilities.
The existing regulatory instruments in the waste management sector, such as government regulations with fixed quotas or voluntary commitments by the industry involved, have generally failed to prove themselves in the sense of an increasing recycling rate for high-quality recycling with closed cycles. The new German Packaging Act therefore, for the first time, attempted to downgrade poorly recyclable packaging by means of a malus system compared to recyclable packaging, thereby creating incentives for “good” products.
In addition, product responsibility regulations are becoming increasingly focussed. The revised European Waste Framework Directive introduces an “extended producer responsibility regime” that obliges producers of products to assume financial responsibility or financial and organisational responsibility for management, including separate collection and sorting and treatment processes, during the waste phase of the product lifecycle. This obligation may also cover organisational responsibility and responsibility for preventing waste, as well as contributing to the reusability and recyclability of products. Producers of products may fulfil the obligations under the extended producer responsibility regime individually or collectively. Legal regulations have been put in place for old cars, batteries and electrical appliances as well as for packaging.
So far, there are no specific requirements with regard to disposal for the product system “wind energy plant” apart from the generally applicable requirements of the circular economy law [KrWG 2012]. In particular, the provisions of §23 (Product Responsibility) have not been implemented so far. The Federal Council’s approaches to the future possibility of authorising mandatory “Environmental Product Declarations (EPD)” were not adopted by the responsible Federal Ministry as part of the current amendment to the Circular Economy Act (as of Sept.2020).
Recycling of steel and concrete as main components of a wind turbine is already more or less well-established, the situation for the rotor blades, mainly made of fibre composite plastics, was different at the beginning of the project in 2018.
In the years after 2020, with the phasing out of EEG funding for the plants of the first generation, the material masses from dismantled or repowered plants from the onshore sector will increase significantly. According to forecasts by [Albers et al. 2016] using the example of GRP from rotor blades, from the year 2020, approximately 10,000 Mg/a to approx. a maximum of 22,000 Mg/a of rotor blades can be expected; for the period up to 2030 in total approx. 190,000 Mg. The German WindEnergie Association (BWE) in 2018 assumed a possible accumulation of disused rotor blades by 2025 of approx. 140,000 Mg [BWE 2018].
At the same time, it was and can be seen that the masses will fluctuate strongly over the first few years after EEG funding expires depending on the expansion and dismantling scenarios (including second-life) and repowering concepts.
In this aforementioned context, the joint project RecycleWind 1.0 was launched in February 2018 via Bremer Aufbaubank GmbH with EFRE funds and funds from the Applied Environmental Research (AUF) programme of the Bremen Senator for Environment, Construction and Transport. The aim was to develop criteria for the creation of a self-learning and resilient recycling network for wind turbines.
For the development of the RecycleWind concept as a self-learning and resilient recycling network, the focus was placed on the rotor blades which were still difficult to recycle or dispose of. In this context, existing barriers should be clearly visible on the basis of the current structures of utilisation technologies and stakeholders, and solutions should be developed from them.
On the basis of recorded basic data (database wind turbines and process descriptions regarding deconstruction, dismantling and recycling of rotor blades) and visualisation by material flow models a self-organisation supported by the relevant actors should generate appropriately adapted recycling solutions. Instead of rigid recycling quotas by the legislator, this model is intended to ensure high-quality recycling that can react flexibly to changes in external conditions.
For this, the following questions had to be answered at the beginning of the work, which should be regarded as the basis for decision-making:
- What are the objectives, tasks and responsibilities of the actors in the process chain?
- Which “second-life” products and wastes from which components are produced at what times in which mass streams and qualities at the end of the life cycle?
- Which recycling routes with which technologies must be available?
- Which markets and applications are available for the reused products and recyclates?
- How does an adapted recycling network look like?
- Which framework conditions and requirements must be set?
- How can be react flexibly to changes in framework conditions without having to abandon overarching efficiency targets?
In Fig. 1, the working levels planned for this at that time are shown. Through a tragic personal event, the agent-based modelling by the University of Bremen could not be realised. The university therefore had to withdraw from the joint project.
Fig. 1: Processing Layers RecycleWind 1.0
The following results have to be recorded from the Recycle Wind 1.0 project with expiry of 31.10.2019:
- The process chains are shown for the example rotor blade over the entire life cycle. The business and technical processes that are influencing the material flows ar identified. The responsible actors are characterised and described by their possible options for action (in particular, the disposal of carbon fibre plastics, e.g. the possible formation of WHO fibres in waste treatment, is a problem).
- The approximately 28,000 wind turbines onshore available in Germany are recorded in a database (Excel) with their characteristics and material quantities for the rotor blade types installed.
- Material flow models along the life cycle of a rotor blade, including analysis of environmental impacts in the form of LCA analyses, are exemplary elaborated.
- Initial approaches for standardisation of dismantling processes are the focus of the stakeholders concerned; with the participation of employees from the project RecycleWind 1.0, the DIN Spec 4866 “Sustainable deconstruction, dismantling, recycling and reutilization of wind turbines” was developed (publisched in August 2020 by Beuth-Verlag).
- Initial conceptions for a recycling network include the establishment of a quality association RecycleWind. In this quality association the actors along the life cycle of a WEA, i.e. manufacturers, operators and waste management companies together with science and government representatives under the direction of a “neutral body” shall develop standards for the design and specifications for dismantling as well as the reutilisation of individual material flows. To control the material flows, definitions relating to recyclability and recycling quota have been developed and in this context a “secondary stock quota” is newly introduced.
- Transparent product declarations for the main components are considered necessary for working in the quality association. The environmental product declaration (EPDs) already established in the field of “Sustainable Building” as an eco-label class III according to DIN ISO 14025 is regarded as a good basis for this. A blueprint for a future EPD-plus was developed for rotor blades. The “plus” stands for a transparent presentation of dismantling instructions and the future assessment of recyclability within the EPD with a distinction in the information on recycling in “high quality recycling” and “other” recycling.
Within this joint research project “RecycleWind 2.0”, a powerful flexible reutilisation network as a pilot application for durable products is to be developed in a previously unregulated but currently important “green” product market for wind turbines based on the state of the art and the previous work from the previous project RecycleWind 1.0. Figure 2 shows the working approach based on the previous project. Due to the complexity of the network, the¬ project will continue to focus on the most problematic components of the rotor blades made of GRP or CFRP composite materials. However, it should be designed in such a way that an extension to the entire wind turbine is possible and the results could be transfered to other product systems (example: Shipbuilding and aircraft construction).
Fig. 2: Procedure and results of the RecycleWind 2.0 project with interfaces to the previous project RecycleWind 1.0
Since essential framework conditions, such as market developments, can change in the course of product life, this network cannot work with rigid specifications. It must be able to react to the changes of the requirements robust, adaptable, innovative and capable of improvisation, i.e. self-learning and resilient, and be able to meet the legal framework requirements. The main idea here is that, based on the residual value of a product at the end of its product life and the new value after passing the recycling system, only a certain efforts for dismantling and recycling (technologies, organisation) can be made. Nevertheless, the requirements regarding efficiency parameters (material, energy, climate protection, costs, etc.) must be met. Depending on the market situation, the recycling strategies and the actual recycling routes will therefore have to be adapted without leaving the legal requirements. In order to work, the specifications for this system must also be -flexible in a guiding framework. The guiding framework results substantially from the policy guidelines (energy, environmental policy, general framework such as sustainability).
The main methodological elements are:
- Comprehensive product declarations by means of adapted EPDs regarding recyclability
- Material flow models for the description and evaluation of process chains and material flows throughout the life cycle on the basis of a central product database
- Agent-based modelling to map options for action and their impact, taking into account the interests of stakeholders in relation to the target formulation of the reutilization network
- Approaches for establishing an “association of quality RecycleWind” with the participation of all relevant actors to ensure the highest possible recycling for wind turbines with the help of monitoring models in comparison to the framework conditions including suitable control elements
For the first time, the project will transfer design elements of resilient socio-technical systems to the wind energy reutilization system. Resilience in this context means that the recovery system must be able to adapt flexibly to changing conditions. Technical-organizational elements such as buffers, memory, modularity, redundancies and an intelligent networking of supply and demand are generally considered for this purpose [Gößling-Reisemann et al.2016].
In order to verify the performance of the resilient design elements, they will be transferred to a dynamic model of the wind energy reutilization system. Based on the status quo of reutilization practice, innovative elements are then introduced into the system in order to verify their impact on the system’s ability to deal with uncertainty and fluctuations. As modelling tools particularly “agent-based models (ABM)” are suitable. On the one hand disseminate dynamics of technical and organisational innovations and on the other hand their impact on material flows can be mapped with these tools. Since an ABM is based on the mapping of stakeholder actions that typically work together in networks, workshops and/or interviews with all relevant actors in the wind energy reutilization network are conducted to specify the model. The actors provide knowledge about their decision-making practices and thus help to map the impact of technical or organizational innovations in a fluctuating environment in a realistic way.
Fig. 3: Schematic definition of an agent-based model from [Arnaud Gridnard 2017], Agent-Based Visualisation, with customised layout design (https://v3.pubpub.org/pub/57ac6dedada4e9002dca9d4a)
As main results fo the RecycleWind 2.0 project are expected:
- Creation of an EPD format using the example of rotor blades that takes into account the recyclability of the products
- Updating data collection on rotor blades from potential EoL-WEA (Excel) and creating a concept for a central modular expandable database for the other main components
- Definition of recyclability and integration into material flow models/life-cycle analyses
- Agent-based (modularly expandable by other main components) modelling using the example of rotor blade
- Adaptation of the rough structure elaborated in the project RecycleWind 1.0 – resilient and self-learning” for the planned recycling network in the context of the results obtained in this project, in particular with regard to the use of the service modules central database, material flow model and ABM
Previous project results RecycleWind incl. update
In addition to the development of sufficient basic data, such as the inclusion of all onshore wind turbines in a higher-level database and the inclusion of processes between all relevant actors for the dismantling and reutilisation of rotor blades, two fundamental aspects have been identified for the future establishment of an effective recycling network::
- Due to the frequent lack of data on the material composition of the main components in already completed decommissioning projects of onshore wind turbines, the establishment of a standardised product declaration is considered as necessary. The use of so-called Environment Product Declarations (EPDs) is proposed, which have already been introduced as eco-labels in Europe. They are currently mainly used in the construction sector.
- In addition to the establishment of EPDs, the establishment of a quality association “RecycleWind” was also proposed in order to ensure a high-quality recycling of wind turbines within the framework of this self-organisation.
Defined key figures or terms relating to recycling and recovery are necessary for control in a recycling network. In the context of the RecycleWind project, corresponding definitions of terms have been defined in the context of a future recycling network to serve as control variables in the context of the RecycleWind project, based on long-term discussions on recycling quotas and their definitions and recent definitions in European and German waste legislation.
To estimate the masses and expected material flows, an Excel database “RecycleWind” with all wind turbines installed until spring 2018 was created in the RecycleWind 1.0 project on the basis of the installed onshore wind energy plants in Germany.
The database contains all data of wind turbines on land in the plant register of the Federal Network Agency (Status: Spring 2018) as well as the data sets of the plants that were installed until 08.2014 from the registers of the network operators (TransnetBW GmbH, TenneT TSO GmbH, Amprion GmbH and 50hertz Transmission GmbH).
The system type with the respective electrical outputs and the rotor diameters (if available) as well as information on location (postal code) and assignment to the federal states were recorded, so that evaluations for each federal state can be presented separately. Each wind turbine was assigned one of the four wind zones via the specified postal code. For all plants in the database, which have no information on the rotor diameter, the rotor diameter had to be estimated using a trend function. For this purpose, in the register sheet “Windzone Rotor Diameter” the trend for each wind zone was determined from the real rotor diameters depending on the power.
This database is continuously adapted on the basis of the market master data register that has been activated since April 2019 (current status December 31, 2020) and is continuously updated. An expansion for the offshore area is in progress.
In cooperation with the rotor blade manufacturer Euros GmbH, headquartered in Berlin (today TPI Composites) and literature research an assignment of rotor blades with carbon belts “CFRP” based on the plant types of the WEAs in the database was carried out. All other plants were assigned “GRP”. In addition, initial estimates of the material composition for CFRP and GRP rotor blades were made and trend statements on rotor blade masses were made depending on the rotor diameter. These approaches are condensed with ongoing input data and then taken into account when the database is updated.
Table 1 shows the currently assumed percentage of material composition for “CFRP” and “GRP” rotor blades WEA type onshore.
Tab. 1: Estimation of the percentage material composition for “CFRP” and “GRP”— Rotor blades, graded according to power classes in MWel
This procedure enables a material-specific evaluation for the prognosis of resulting end-of-life rotor blades in addition to the total mass.
Especially in connection with durable products, such as the rotor blades of wind turbines, information about built-in materials and constructions is extremely important for future recycling efforts, because under certain circumstances the recourse to manufactures themselves is not possible.
For this reason, the existing approaches of EPDs from the construction sector have been further developed in the RecycleWind project. In addition to information on the material composition, information about their recyclability has to be made here. This requires information about the installation location in the form of a design sketch and information on dismantling options.
Information on possible recycling and recovery processes, in particular for the main components installed, including the purpose of the related reuse shall also be provided.
As part of the project RecycleWind 1.0, a first blueprint for an “EPD rotor blade” based on the previous standardisation, as used in particular for construction products, was created in cooperation with a rotor blade company (see Download “Blueprint EPD Rotor blade”). The focus was set on a good documentation of the material composition, information on the location/principle sketches of materials potentially classified as “critical” for recycling and information on the possibility of dismantling of individual assemblies or main components.
The abbreviation EPD is derived from the English term Environmental Product Declaration. An EPD is a Type III Ecolabel (according to ISO 14025), i.e. a comprehensive and externally verified description of environmental performance without evaluation.
An EPD is a document in which the environmental properties of a particular product are represented in the form of neutral and objective data. These data cover as far as possible all the effects that the product can have on its environment. In best case, the entire life cycle of the product is taken into account, including end-of-life.
EPDs are based on life cycle assessments according to ISO 14040 and ISO 14044, in which the environmental impacts of a particular product are summed up and analysed over its life cycle. DIN EN 15804 describes the standard for the creation of EPDs of construction products. Mapping a variety of different environmental influences individually is a particularly important feature of life cycle assessments in opposition to providing only individual indicators or assessments. For example, in addition to greenhouse gas emissions, DIN EN 15804 also takes into account other influences such as acid rain, the formation of smog, the consumption of fossil resources and water or the proportion of recycling.
Manufacturers of products and/or eco-balancers commissioned by them have been faced with the task of collecting and evaluating data for the production phase and the use phase (EPD modules A and B) as well as data for EPD modules C (reuse, recycling, disposal) and D (recycling potential). For these processes there are usually far less good data available. These are therefore usually mapped with generic data for waste disposal and recovery processes. Since there are no tight specifications for the selection of scenarios at the end of life, assumptions made for this can be very different, which makes comparability very difficult.
In principle, standardisation is required for the evaluation of dismantling and treatment after the end of life of the products and their supply to recycling and/or reutilization processes; that means the potential recyclability.
In the RecycleWind 2.0 project, criteria are to be determined and thus a blueprint for an “EPD-Plus rotor blade” will be created. The expanded “EPD-plus” with integrated recycling assessments will then serve as a basic document on recycling for the main components of wind turbines in the future and includes:
- Information from the manufacturer about a product and its components, for dismantling, to facilitate the execution of optimised end-of-life workflows for waste disposal and recycling companies
- A statement/assessment on recyclability, which must also include the presence of circulatory systems
- An evaluation of the product on the basis of LCA analyses (including carbon footprint) and presentation of credits by material flows in recycling and/or reutilization processes
For the evaluation of a whole wind turbine, several EPDs have to be set up, each for the main components.
The basic element of such a quality association, which already exist in the field of waste management, for example for (mineral) recycling materials, compost or refused derived fuels (RDF), but also known for products such as RAL-certified mineral wool, is the establishment of a quality committee that ensures compliance with the quality assurance regulations.
In the Quality Committee, all major stakeholder groups should be represented by appropriate members; in addition, representatives of approval authorities and R & D.
As the players can also act as competitors on the market, the management of the quality committee should be represented through a “neutral institution” for organisation and coordination as well as for moderation, such as an institute of the University of Applied Sciences Bremen.
The quality committee awards quality seals for member companies that comply with the established standards. This must be demonstrated by successful participation in established certifications/checks.
The work of such a quality association bases on sufficient product declarations by manufacturers; in the case of the wind turbines, the main components have to be considered separately. The developed EPD-plus or the data requested should be regarded as a standard for members of the quality association, as far as they are not generally prescribed by the legislation in the future, especially for durable products.
Through an ongoing update of the evaluations, the quality association also creates a constant reassessment of the “old” EPDs evaluation. This recurring (re)evaluation alone meets requirements of recycling of durable products and thus also the responsibility of manufacturers.
In addition, an overview of the total stock of all wind turbines and their characteristics is of great importance for the work in the quality association. Only in this way material flows of the present and the future stock can be mapped or predicted and thus necessary processing and utilisation capacities can be estimated or shown. In the case of a lack of capacity, appropriate solutions should be discussed within the framework of the extended producer responsibility.
Tasks of a quality association
Preparation or setting of standards for the dismantling of wind turbines or the main components, for disassembling, processing and for the utilisation of the individual components, including any requirements for substitution of substances (see among other things lead balls as trim masses in the rotor blades) taking into account the ongoing development on the market (state of technology, alternative materials).
In order to assess recyclability of the main components and the overall system, definitions of recyclability, recycling and reutilization rates and derived control variables have to be defined and thus an evaluation of the overall WEA system shall be carried out in a process-based manner using resilience criteria (e.g. adaptability, redundancies).
In addition of assessing the recycling and reutilization rate, the use of LCA assessments or the CO2 footprint as a control parameter should also be used.
For later control in the planned utilisation network, defined key figures or terms are necessary. In the context of the RecycleWind project, the following definitions have been defined in the context of the RecycleWind project, based on the long-standing discussions on recycling quotas and their definitions (e.g. KRUs) and recent definitions in European and German waste legislation (including commercial waste regulation):
In the RecycleWind project, recyclability is understood as an assessment of an entire system in which reuse and recycling of individual waste streams is possible through separation and disassembly of components and processing can be carried out through an existing infrastructure and organisation of the actors, so that high quality secondary material flows can substitute primary raw materials in a subsequent production process and can be circulated for as long as possible.
In the RecycleWind project, the measure for recyclability is currently the recycling rate, which has to be determined separately for the main components, with a distinction to be made always in terms of Mg or kg/product (main component WEA)
a. Recycling quota A high quality, i.e. for the purpose of origin, or high-quality cascade use
In course of the consistent data on the so-called “rubble deductions” in the use of recycled quantities the secondary material quotas should then replace the recycling quotas for the evaluation of the recyclability.
The amount on which the secondary material quota is based corresponds to the amount that is used to calculate the substitution quota. The substitution quota was proposed by the Resources Commisson at the UBA (KRU) to evaluate the the circular economy and indicates the share of secondary marterial in a product. The secondary material quota, as defined by us, looks at the circular economy from the point of waste, the substitution quota looks at the circular economy from the point of (new) product.
In case of a future establishment of a quality association RecycleWind, the aforementioned definitions of control parameters must be discussed by the members in the quality committee and then determined by majority decision.
Institut für Energie und Kreislaufwirtschaft an der Hochschule Bremen GmbH, Germany
(Institute for Energy, Recycling and Environmental Protection at Bremen University of Applied Sciences)
The Institute for Energy, Recycling and Environmental Protection at Bremen University of Applied Sciences (IEKrW) was founded in 2000 and is an example of public-private partnership in the field of applied research and development. As an SME, it serves as a transfer point between science and business.
Prof. Dr. rer.nat. Martin Wittmaier
Phone: +49 (0) 421 5905-2326
Fax: +49 (0) 421 5905-2380
Dr. Detlef Spuziak-Salzenberg
Phone: +49 (0) 421 5905-3566
Fax: +49 (0) 421 5905-2380
Universität Bremen, Germany
The department Resilient Energy Systems at the University of Bremen is particularly concerned with the resilient design of energy systems, taking technical, social and economic aspects into account. In terms of method, modeling and simulation, vulnerability and risk analysis, methods of social science empiricism and stakeholder-based assessment approaches are used. In addition, methods of classic technology assessment (including life cycle assessment, risk assessment, toxicology, cost / benefit analysis, scenario technology) are used, which are further developed in the respective research framework, right up to the concept-oriented technology design. The resilience approach of design and development of technologies is understood as a bionic approach, in the sense of “learning from nature”.
Dr. rer. nat Torben Stührmann
Resilient Energy Systems
Phone: +49 (0) 421 218-64896
brands & values GmbH, Germany
brands & values GmbH is a management consultancy specialized in sustainablility consulting. The main focus is on ecological sustainability. The business areas can be divided into the following areas:
- Life cycle assessment & life cycle analysisLebenszyklusanalyse
- Environmental management
- Sustainability strategy
- Sustainability communication & reporting
- Sustainability software
Dipl.-Ing Tobias Brinkmann M.Sc
Lukas Metzger M.Sc
Phone: +49 (0) 421 709084-33
Supporting and cooperating companies
TPI Composites Germany GmbH, Germany
TPI Composites Germany GmbH is part of TPI Composites, Inc. (TPI). We are a leading manufacturer of rotor blades for wind turbines and in 2019 we were responsible for around 18% of all MW-based onshore rotor blades sold worldwide. With over 1.4 billion US dollars in sales and more than 9,500 rotor blades sold, we have reached a new high this year. We enable many of the industry’s leading wind turbine original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) who have relied on in-house manufacturing to outsource the manufacture of part of their rotor blades. Our advanced manufacturing facilities are strategically located around the world to cost effectively serve the growing global wind market.
TPI Composites Germany GmbH
Falkenberger Strasse 146 A/B
Carbon-Werke Weißgerber GmbH & Co. KG, Germany
Carbon fibers (carbon fibers) in the form of carbon rovings, carbon tapes, carbon braided hoses, carbon fabrics or carbon prepregs have been used at the Carbon-Werke in Wallerstein for technologically demanding applications for more than 35 years.
These are used in the fields of aerospace / vehicle construction / motor sports / medical technology / mechanical and plant engineering / sporting goods / model making, etc., where conventional materials reach their technological limits. This takes the form of carbon rods, carbon tubes, carbon plates (unidirectional, highly rigid, high-gloss or as a sandwich) in dimensions of up to 6 m in length. The existing machine park also allows individual, tailor-made, high-precision component production, either as a single piece or in series production.
On the basis of research and development together with universities, colleges and institutes, industry-related special applications have been brought to series maturity, which have led to breakthrough innovations in astronomy, laser technology and computer chip production.
All materials and processes are based on the requirements of a sustainable circular economy and also take into account the reuse and further use of the high-quality carbon materials on extremely high technological levels.
Weißgerber GmbH & Co. KG
Downloads & Publications
- Steinfeld, Michael; Spuziak-Salzenberg, Detlef; Arndt, Carmen: Quo vadis Stoffströme – die Wege des Rückbaus sind (un)ergründlich. Presentation at 29. Windenergietagen 2021 Potsdam from 10.-12. November 2021 (german) – pdf
- Brinkmann, Tobias; Spuziak-Salzenberg, Detlef; Spring, Philippe: RecycleWind 2.0: EPD’s and data sharing for an effective recycling of rotor blades. Presentation at the annual WindEurope event on end-of-life strategies (EoLIS), 4-5. Nov. 2021 in Brussels – pdf
- Brinkmann, Tobias; Steinfeld Michael: High-quality Recycling through self-learning and resilient Recycling Networks using a Combination of Agent-Based Modelling and Life-Cycle Assessment. Vortrag auf der 10ten internationalen Konferenz zu Life Cycle Management vom 05 – 08 September 2021 – pdf
- Spuziak-Salzenberg, Detlef: “Verwertungsnetzwerk RecycleWind – selbstlernend und resilient”. Presentation at circular economy working group of Lower Saxony government commission “Nachhaltige Umweltpolitik” at 15.12.2020 – online (german) – pdf
- Brinkmann, Tobias (brands & values GmbH); Spring, Philippe (TPI Composites Germany GmbH): Conception of a recycling network, self-learning and resilient, for the sustainable control of the material flows of wind energy plants using the example of a rotorblade. Presentation at conference “Wind Turbine Blade Manufacture” – Global conference on MW wind blade design, composites manufacturing and performance, 7-10 Dezember 2020, Virtuell Summit – Online – pdf
- Brinkmann, Tobias: “RecyleWind – a network – self-learning and resilient”. Presentation at Frauenhofer Institut IWES, Steuerungskreis Rotorblatt (web-Conference) (german) – pdf
- Albers, Henning; Spuziak-Salzenberg, Detlef; Brinkmann, Tobias: “Verwertungsnetzwerk RecycleWind – selbstlernend und resilient”. Presentation at UBA, Fachgebiet III 1.6 ; Produktverantwortung” am 19.11.2019 in Dessau und beim Niedersächsischen Ministerium für Umwelt, Energie, Bauen und Klimaschutz, Referat 36 “Kreislauf- und Abfallwirtschaft, Altlasten Ressourcenmanagement” am 20.02.2020 in Hannover (german) – pdf
- Spuziak-Salzenberg, Detlef: “Verwertungsnetzwerk RecycleWind – selbstlernend und resilient”. Presentation at Carbon Composites e.V., Fachgruppen-Meeting “Windenergie” in Aalen (german) – pdf
- Albers, Henning: “A new conceptual approach to implement recycling options in reinforced plastics life cycle management of “rotor blade” product systems”. Presentation at AMI-International Conference “Plastics Recycling Technology 2019”, 18./19.06.2019, Hilton Hotel Düsseldorf, Germany – pdf
- Germer, Frauke: “Strategies for a resilient and self-learning recycling network of rotor blades”. Presenation at Franco-German office for the energy transition; seminar: “Dismantling of wind power plants in France and in Germany” – pdf
- Albers, Henning; Germer, Frauke; Wulf, Kalle: “Recycling von Windenergieanlagen – Herausforderungen und Lösungsansätze”. Presentation at VDI-Event of AK Energy and Environment – pdf
- Albers, Henning; Germer, Frauke; Wulf, Kalle: “Rückbau und Recycling von Windenergieanlagen – Status Quo und Herausforderungen”. Presentation at Fachagentur Windenergie and Land e.V. and Energie Agentur NRW „Break & Sieving expert exchange on the end-of-life of wind turbines in Bremen (german) – pdf
- Albers, Henning; Germer, Frauke; Pehlken, Alexandra: “Rotorblätter aus Windkraftanlagen – Herausforderungen für das Recycling”. Presentation at Berlin Recycling- and Raw material conference – pdf
- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Henning Albers, Dr. Frauke Germer (Hochschule Bremen), Dr. Detlef Spuziak-Salzenberg (IEKrW an der Hochschule Bremen GmbH), Tobias Brinkmann M.Sc.(brands & values GmbH, Bremen), Dipl.-Ing. Philippe Spring (TPI Composites Germany GmbH, Berlin), Dr. Torben Stührmann (Universität Bremen): RecycleWind – Konzept eines Verwertungsnetzwerks für langlebige komplexe Produkte unter Berücksichtigung von Betreiber- und Herstellerverantwortungen am Beispiel von Windenergieanlagen. Müll und Abfall, professional journal for recycling and resource management, 53rd year, August 2021, pp.420-430, Erich-Schmidt-Verlag (german) – Link
- Recommendation / draft for an environmental product declaration (EPD) for rotor blades with first extended information on recycling aspects, here integrated construction and dismantling instructions, based on real data from the company TPI Composites Germany GmbH, August 2021 – pdf
- Project poster 11/2020 – pdf
- Poster EFRE-Funding: Innovation. Institut für Energie und Kreislaufwirtschaft an der Hochschule Bremen GmbH. 08/2020 – pdf
- Poster Kalle Wulf for the 9th Science Congress Waste and Resource Management DGAW, April 2019 – pdf
- Wulf, K.; Germer, F.; Albers, H.: Comparison of cascaded utilization with Life Cycle Assessment – a case study of wind turbine blades, in: Cascade Use in Technologies – International conference for Cascade use and circular economy – Oldenburg 2018, Springer Vieweg, 2019, 10.1007/978-3-662-57886-5 – Link
- Pehlken, Alexandra; Albers, Henning; Germer, Frauke: Rotorblätter aus Windkraftanlagen – Herausforderungen für das Recycling. Thomé-Kozmiensky Verlag GmbH, 2017 (german) – Link
- DIN SPEC 4866 “Nachhaltiger Rückbau, Demontage, Recycling und Verwertung von Windenergieanlagen (Stand 10-2020); can be downloaded free of charge from Beuth-Verlag – Link
- Projekt SeeOff „Strategieentwicklung zum effizienten Rückbau von Offshore-Windparks“; Hochschule Bremen, Fakultät 2 Architektur, Bau und Umwelt, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Silke Eckardt – Link
Previous project "RecycleWind"
Research project to develop a self-learning and resilient recycling network for wind turbines
With the help of the scientific method of agent-based modeling, the effects of long-term strategies on the “rotor blade” product system of wind turbines are to be examined. The aim of the project is to develop specific recycling agreements that are negotiated and implemented jointly by the actors in the product system.
Wind turbines are high-quality, complex products made from a variety of materials. The first of the approximately 29,000 systems in Germany are reaching the end of their product life cycle. A sharp increase in the number of plants to be shut down is expected in the coming years. But what happens to these old systems? The wind industry would have to claim to dismantle the “green” energy generation systems as efficiently as possible and to recycle them in a high-quality manner in the sense of the circular economy.
This requirement is currently not being met, and in the future it cannot be assumed that the recycling market alone will be able to dispose of old systems in a way that secures resources. Reasons for this are, for example, the lack of transparency with regard to material flows and problematic material components such as carbon fibers (CFRP).
This is where the research project “RecycleWind recycling network – resilient and self-learning” comes in. This is a joint project of the Bremen University of Applied Sciences, the University of Bremen and the consulting firm brands & values, sustainability consultants in Bremen.
In the project, a self-learning recycling network is being developed with the key players at all stages in the life cycle of wind turbines. The aim is for the actors (participating companies or authorities) to jointly define concrete but adaptable recycling agreements for the resource-saving control of material flows.
As prerequisites for the agreements, three methodical elements are worked out in RecycleWind:
- the material flow model,
- the actor network and
- agend-based modeling.
With agent-based modeling, scientifically proven methods of self-control in the material flow system can be researched and the effects of possible actions of the actors can be simulated. Since the essential framework conditions change when wind turbines are operated for around 20 years, the recycling network cannot work with a rigid framework. In contrast to existing control elements in other industries with fixed recycling rates, an adaptable concept of self-control is used. The concept must be able to react to changes in requirements in a robust, adaptable, innovative and improvisational manner, i.e. self-learning and resilient. At the same time, the requirements regarding efficiency parameters (material, energy, climate protection, costs, etc.) must be met. Depending on the market situation and the constellation of actors, the recycling strategies and the recycling routes actually used are fluidly adapted by the actors without missing the efficiency targets that have been set.
Hochschule Bremen (Project management)
Institut für Umwelt- und Biotechnik
Prof. Dr.-Ing Henning Albers
Dr. Frauke Germer
Phone: +49 421 5905-2396
Resilient Energy Systems
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Johannes Kiefer (komm.)
Dr. rer nat Torben Stührmann
Phone: +49 421 218-64896
brands & values GmbH
Dipl.-Ing. Tobias Brinkmann M.Sc
Phone: +49 421 709084-33
This Project (FKZ: AUF0009) is funded by the Bremer Aufbau-Bank GmbH with funds from the „Programm zur Förderung angewandter Umweltforschung AUF“ by the Bremen Senator for climate protection, environment, mobility, urban development and residential building and with funds of the European Regional Development Fund (EFRE).